Roll On Roll Off is a cargo handling method whereby vessels are loaded via one or more ramps that are lowered on the quay or lowered onto a ship. Ro-Ro comprises cargo items that can be driven on / off a ship. These include Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs), cars, buses and other vehicular traffic.


Lift On Lift Off cargo is a containerised cargo handling method by which vessels are loaded or unloaded by either shore or ship cranes.


Twentyfoot Equivalent Unit. Lo-Lo cargo is normally measured in TEUs. A forty foot long container equates to two TEUs. Container vessel capacity and port throughput capacity are frequently measured in TEUs.

Liquid Bulk

cargo includes oil, petroleum, chemicals, molasses, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and bitumen.

Dry Bulk

is loose mostly uniform cargo normally loaded/discharged by crane. Cargo types include animal foodstuffs, coal, fertilizer, cement fines, peat, minerals, grain, etc.

Break Bulk

is general loose non-containerised cargo, stowed directly in a ship’s hold.


is the act of advising the master of a ship in navigation when entering or leaving a port in confined water.


is the provision of a tug vessel to assist other vessels in safe operation within the Port


is an individual or firm that employs dock workers to load and unload ships.


is the removal of sediment to deepen access channels, provide turning basins for ships and to maintain adequate water depth along waterside facilities.


is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide).


Sulphur Dioxide.


stands for particulate matter or particulates. These are microscopic particles in the air.

Anthropogenic impact on the environment

is impact due to human activity as distinct from natural causes.